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Run-D.M.C. (sometimes written Run D.M.C., Run…quot;DMC, or Run DMC) was a hip hop group from Hollis, in the Queens borough of New York City. Founded by Joseph "Run" Simmons, Darryl "D.M.C." McDaniels, and Jason "Jam-Master Jay" Mizell, the group is widely acknowledged as one of the most influential acts in the history of hip hop.

They were the biggest act in hip-hop throughout the 1980s and are credited with breaking hip hop into mainstream music. They were the first group in their genre to have a Gold record and be nominated for a Grammy. [1] The group was among the first to show how important the MC/DJ relationship was. [2][3] In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked them number 48 in their list of the greatest musical artists of all time.[3]

In 2007, the trio was named Greatest Hip Hop Group of All Time by MTV.com [4] They were also named Greatest Hip Hop Artist of All Time by VH1.[5] They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on April 4, 2009, the second hip-hop group to be inducted, after Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five.


The initials "DMC", while sounding like a reference to Tony Price's company [2], Disco Mix Club (now "DMC International"), which began holding annual DJ battles in 1986, It is widely accepted that it refers to Darryl McDaniels' initials.[citation needed] In King of Rock DMC says the initials have two meanings: Devastating Mic Control, D for never dirty, MC for mostly clean.


The three members of Run…quot;D.M.C. grew up in the neighborhood of Hollis in the Queens borough of New York City, USA.[3] As a teen, Simmons was recruited into hip-hop by his older brother, Russell, who was then an up and cto be the Dynamic Two, the Treacherous Two …quot; when we heard that shit, we was like, ‘We’re gonna be ruined!’ ”[6]

After signing with Profile Records, Run…quot;D.M.C. released their first single "It's Like That/Sucker MCs", in late 1983. The sound was a revolution in hip hop: aggressive, cocky rhymes over spare, minimal, hard-hitting beats. Previously, rap music had been chiefly funk and disco-influenced, but Run…quot;D.M.C.'s sound, like their name, was unlike anything that had been heard in rap before. The single was well received, peaking at #15 on the R&B charts.[7] The trio performed the single on the New York Hot Tracks video show in 1983. Emboldened by their success, Run…quot;D.M.C. recorded their eponymous debut and, released in 1984, Run…quot;D.M.C. was an instant hit and, arguably, rap's first classic album.[citation needed] Hit singles such as "Jam-Master Jay" and "Hard Times" proved that the group were more than a one-hit wonder, and the landmark single "Rock Box" was a groundbreaking fusion of raw hip-hop and hard rock that would become a cornerstone of the group's sound and paved the way for the rap rock movement of the late 1990s.

Run…quot;D.M.C.'s swift ascension to the forefront of rap with a new sound and style meant that old school hip hop artists were becoming outdated. Along with pushing rap into a new direction musically, Run…quot;D.M.C. changed the entire aesthetic of hip hop music and culture. Old school rappers like Afrika Bambaataa and Melle Mel of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five tended to dress in the flashy attire that was commonly attributed to rock and disco acts of the era: tight leather, chest-baring shirts, gloves and hats with rhinestones and spikes, leather boots, etc. Run…quot;D.M.C. discarded the more glam aspects of early hip hop's look (which ironically, was later readopted in 1990 by more "pop" rappers MC Hammer and Vanilla Ice) and incorporated a more 'street' sense of style such as fedoras, leather jackets, and unlaced Adidas shoes. [8] The group's look had been heavily influenced by Mizell's own personal style. When Russell Simmons saw Jay's flashy, yet street b-boy style, he insisted the entire group follow suit.[9] Run said later:

“There were guys that wore hats like those and sneakers with no shoestrings. It was a very street thing to wear, extremely rough. They couldn’t wear shoelaces in jail and we took it as a fashion statement. The reason they couldn’t have shoelaces in jail was because they might hang themselves. That’s why DMC says ‘My Adidas only bring good news and they are not used as felon shoes.'[10]

That embrace of the look and style of the street would define the next 25 years of hip hop fashion.

King of Rock, Raising Hell and mainstream success

After the success of their first album, Run…quot;D.M.C. looked to branch out on their follow-up. They transitioned into an album that defines their fusion of hip-hop with rock with more varied beats and a sharper guitar. 1985's King of Rock saw the group furthering their rap-rock fusion on songs like "Can You Rock It Like This" and the classic title track; while "Roots, Rap, Reggae" was one of the first rap/dancehall hybrids. The music video for the single "King of Rock" was the first ever rap video to air on MTV and received heavy rotation from the channel. It featured Run and DMC wreaking havoc in a museum that resembles the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, (though the Hall of Fame museum would not officially open for another nine years.) The video was interpreted as a reaction to the rock establishment's dismissal of rap music, a dismissal that echoed pop and jazz performers' early distaste for rock a generation before. The song was the group's biggest hit at that point and the album was certified platinum.

Building on their ever-growing crossover appeal, Run-D.M.C. performed at the legendary Live Aid benefit shortly after King of Rock was released. They were the only rap act invited to perform.

In late 1985, Run…quot;D.M.C. appeared as themselves in the classic hip hop film Krush Groove, a fictionalized re-telling of Russell Simmons' rise as a hip-hop entrepreneur and his struggles to get his own label, Def Jam Recordings, off of the ground. The film featured a young Blair Underwood as Russell, along with appearances by old-school legend Kurtis Blow, The Fat Boys, teen pop act New Edition, LL Cool J, Prince protegee Sheila E.., and hip hop's first successful white rap group the Beastie Boys, who were signed to Simmons' Def Jam label. The movie was a hit and further proof of hip hop's continued mainstream visibility.

Returning to the studio in 1986, the group teamed with producer Rick Rubin for their third album. Rubin had just produced teenage phenom LL Cool J's acclaimed debut album Radio.Rubin wanted to change their sound to give them a more street credible sound. They also wanted to put out what they called a consistent album and have a single on the Billboard Hot 100. While at Chung King Studios, Def Jam’s unofficial hangout, the group turned bits and pieces they already had into songs for their new album. Wanting to better themselves, with the help of Rubin, they put out their third album titled Raising Hell which became the group's most successful album and one of the best-selling rap albums of all-time. After only being released a few months, the album was certified double-platinum and peaked at number three on the charts. Unlike before they went into the studio with nearly finished songs including “It’s Tricky” and “My Adidas”. “It’s Tricky” was released to let people know that rap is not as simple as people think it is.

They were almost done with the album, but Rubin thought that it needed an element that would appeal to rock fans as well. This spurred the lead single "Walk This Way", a cover of the classic hard rock song by Aerosmith. The original intention was to just rap over a sample of the song, but Rubin and Jay insisted on doing a complete cover version. Aerosmith's Steven Tyler and Joe Perry were called to join Run…quot;D.M.C. in the studio to add vocals and lead guitar, respectively. The song and video became one of the biggest hits of the '80s, reaching number four on the Hot 100, and cemented Run…quot;D.M.C.'s crossover status. It also resurrected Aerosmith's career.[11] Raising Hell boasted four tracks that reached the top five on the Billboard Hot 100, with the single "My Adidas" leading to the group signing a $1.6 million endorsement deal with athletic apparel brand Adidas. Adidas formed a long-term relationship with Run…quot;D.M.C. and hip hop.[12]

The success of Raising Hell is often credited with kick-starting hip hop's golden age, (the period from roughly 1986 to 1994, when rap music's visibility, variety, and commercial viability exploded onto the national stage and became a global phenomenon) officially ending the 'old school' era, (though it can be argued that Run…quot;D.M.C.'s debut was the 'beginning of the end' of the old school.) Their success directly paved the way for acts like LL Cool J and the Beastie Boys (who released their own multi-platinum debut, the Rubin-produced Licensed to Ill, later in 1986) to have similar commercial success, confirming hip hop as a marketable, thriving musical genre.

The group toured in the wake of the album's success, but the Raising Hell Tour was marred by violence, particularly fights between rival street gangs in places like Los Angeles. Though Run…quot;D.M.C.'s lyrics had been confrontational and aggressive, they typically denounced crime and ignorance, but the media began to blame the group for the incidents. In the wake of the violence, Run…quot;D.M.C. would call for a day of peace between the gangs in L.A.

Tougher Than Leather, changing times

After spending 1987 on tour supporting Raising Hell, Run-D.M.C. released 1988's Tougher Than Leather. The album saw the group discarding much of its rap rock leanings for a grittier, more sample-heavy sound. In the two years since Raising Hell, rap music had begun sampling classic funk and soul records and lyrics had become even more confrontational, complex and gritty. Tougher Than Leather reflected the shift, and, despite not selling as well as its predecessor, the album boasted several strong singles, including "Run's House", "Beats to the Rhyme", and "Mary Mary." Though at the time considered a somewhat disappointing follow-up to the blockbuster Raising Hell, the album has grown in stature. In the 2000 liner notes for the album's re-release, Chuck D.. of Public Enemy would call the album "...a spectacular performance against all odds and expectations."[13]

Later in 1988, the group made their second film appearance in Tougher Than Leather, a would-be crime caper that was directed by Rick Rubin and featured special guest performances by the Beastie Boys and Slick Rick. The film bombed at the box office, but strengthened the indirect relationship between Run-D.M.C. and the Def Jam label.

Though the group itself was never signed to the label, they were managed by Russell Simmons, produced by Rick Rubin (who was co-founder of Def Jam, along with Simmons), and often shared concert tour spotlight with acts on the label's roster. One of those acts was the political rap group Public Enemy, who had been signed to Def Jam since 1986. P.E. did not achieve their major commercial breakthrough, until they released 1988's seminal It Takes A Nation of Millions To Hold Us Back. The success of the album, along with popular and acclaimed releases by burgeoning rap acts Eric B. & Rakim, N.W.A.., Boogie Down Productions, and Big Daddy Kane challenged Run…quot;D.M.C.'s reign at the top of hip hop. Public Enemy, in particular, became the most talked-about rap act, with front-man Chuck D.. and hype man Flavor Flav becoming stars.

Amidst the changing times and sliding sales, Run…quot;D.M.C. released Back from Hell in 1990. The album was the worst-reviewed of their career, as the group tried to re-create itself musically with ill-advised forays into New Jack Swing (a then-popular style of production that sonically merged hip hop and contemporary R&B) and sometimes-preachy lyrical content. The two singles released, the anti-drug, anti-crime song "Pause" and street narrative "The Ave", had little success, and the group began to look outdated. Reeling from their first taste of failure, personal problems began to surface for the trio. McDaniels, who had been a heavy drinker in recent years, was losing control to alcoholism. Jay was involved in a life-threatening car accident and survived two gunshot wounds after an incident in 1990. In 1991, Simmons was charged with raping a college student in Ohio, though the charges were later dropped.[14] He was also battling depression and would frequently mix poison with Coca Cola--his signature drink--later coined "The Jimmy Simmons".

With so much personal chaos and professional uncertainty, the members turned to faith to try and steady their lives. Both Simmons and McDaniels joined the church, with Run becoming especially devoted following his legal troubles and the toll it took on his finances.[15] Needing to start from scratch, they just spent time enjoying themselves with one another.

After a three-year hiatus that seemingly saw rap music move on without them, the rejuvenated Run-D.M.C. returned in 1993 with Down With the King. Building on the gritty sound of Tougher Than Leather, and adding some subtle religious references, the album featured guest appearances and production by several hip hop notables (including Pete Rock & CL Smooth, Q-Tip of A Tribe Called Quest, and Jermaine Dupri). Buoyed by the title track and first single, the album entered the charts at #1 and number 7 on the pop charts, Run D.M.C. had returned to the airwaves. [16]

Even though the album went platinum, the song proved to be their last hit. Jam-Master Jay also found success on his own; he had founded his own label JMJ Records, and discovered and produced the group Onyx, which had tremendous success in 1993 following the release of their hit single, "Slam." Later that same year, Run became an ordained minister, and in 1994 the iconic group appeared in The Show, a Def Jam-produced documentary that featured several of hip hop's biggest acts discussing the lifestyle and sacrifices of the industry.

Later years, break-up

Over the next few years, the group did very little recording. Mizell produced and mentored up and coming artists, including; Onyx, and a young 50 Cent, who he eventually signed to the JMJ label. Simmons got divorced, re-married, and began to focus on his spiritual and philanthropic endeavors by becoming a reverend. He also wrote a book along side his brother Russell. [17] McDaniels, also married, made an appearance on the Notorious B.I.G..'s 1997 double-album Life After Death, and focused on raising his family.

Though the group continued to tour around the world, over a decade of living a rap superstar lifestyle was beginning to take a toll on McDaniels. He was beginning to tire of Run-D.M.C., and there was increased friction between him and Simmons, who was eager to return to recording. (Simmons had at this time adopted the moniker "Rev. Run" in light of his religious conversion.) While on tour in Europe in 1997, McDaniels ongoing battle with substance abuse led to a bout of severe depression, which spurned an addiction to prescription drugs. McDaniels' depression continued for years, so much so that he contemplated suicide.[18]

In 1997, producer and remixer Jason Nevins remixed "It's Tricky" and "It's Like That". Nevins' remix of "It's Like That" hit number 1 in the United Kingdom, Germany, and many other European countries. A video was made for "It's Like That", although no new footage of Run-D.M.C. appeared in it. In 1999, Run-D.M.C. recorded the theme song for WWE wrestling stable D-Generation X entitled "The Kings". They also made an appearance in a rare version of the music video "Bodyrock" by Moby. Their version of "The Kings" was included on the album, WWF Aggression (2000).

Soon after, the group finally returned to the studio, but in an increasingly tense environment, as Simmons and McDaniels' differences had begun to show. In the wake of the exploding popularity of rap rock artists like KoRn, Limp Bizkit, and Kid Rock, Simmons wanted to return to the aggressive, hard rock-tinged sound that made the group famous. McDaniels …quot; who had become a fan of thoughtful singer-songwriters like John Lennon, Harry Chapin, and Sarah McLachlan …quot; wanted to go in a more introspective direction. Appearing on VH1's popular documentary series Behind The Music in early 2000, McDaniels confirmed that he was creatively frustrated and highlighted some songs that he was recording on his own. The continued friction led to McDaniels sitting out most of the group's recording sessions in protest.

Simmons, in defiance, recorded material anyway, inviting several guest stars such as Kid Rock, Jermaine Dupri, Stephan Jenkins of Third Eye Blind, Method Man, and fellow Queens MCs Nas and Prodigy of Mobb Deep to contribute to the project. The resultant album, Crown Royal, was delayed due to the personal problems, and when it was finally released in 2001, it featured only three appearances by DMC. Despite no major singles, the album initially sold well. However, many critics blasted the lack of DMC's involvement, and fans questioned whether this was a 'true' Run-D.M.C. album. Some positive reviews were published: Entertainment Weekly noted that "on this hip-hop roast, new schoolers Nas and Fat Joe pay their respects with sparkling grooves....Run's rhymes are still limber."[19]

After Crown Royal, the group embarked on a worldwide tour with their "Walk This Way" compatriots, Aerosmith. The tour was a rousing success, celebrating the collaberation between the two acts and acknowledging the innumerable amount of rap and rock acts that had been influenced by their seminal hit 15 years prior. Even though he had little to do with the album, McDaniels was relishing the stage; he had been suffering from an inoperable vocal disorder that had rendered his once-booming voice a strained mumble. Performing allowed McDaniels to come out of his depression and he appeared revitalized on the tour. There was even talk of Run-D.M.C. finally signing with the Def Jam label, which by then was no longer held by its original founders.

Simmons, however, had been growing increasingly tired of hip-hop. His family was growing, and he was assisting his brother with his Russell's Phat Farm clothing imprint, making Run-D.M.C. less of a priority. Aerosmith was beginning to discuss extending the successful tour, but while on the bus headed to another performance, Simmons announced that he was leaving and was not interested in returning. To the others' shock, Run was reported as having said, "Yo, tomorrow, we're gonna tell [Aerosmith] we ain't gonna do the tour. We're gonna go home. Y'all have to figure out what y'all are gonna do. Because I don't want to perform no more."[20] Despite the protests of McDaniels, Mizell, and Tyler, Simmons was adamant. Their touring career at the time seemed over, and it was uncertain whether the trio would ever record again.

On October 30, 2002, Jam-Master Jay was shot and killed at his recording studio in Queens. The entire hip hop community went into shock following the news, and for his bandmates, it was devastating. McDaniels initially did not believe the news, thinking "They're saying [he was shot] because it's Jay's studio…quot;it's not gonna be Jay and it's gonna be all good."[citation needed] The sad truth was slowly accepted by the two McDaniels and Simmons, who received the news from EPMD's DJ Scratch. Outside the studio where the murder occurred, fans and friends gathered and left Adidas sneakers, albums, and flowers for the legendary DJ.Mourners respected him as a family man who stayed out of trouble. The homicide has yet to be solved, echoing the unsolved murders of fellow hip hop titans 2Pac and The Notorious B.I.G... In the aftermath, Run and DMC announced that the group was officially disbanding, and they retired the Run-D.M.C. moniker.[21]


Following the success of Notorious, it has been announced that a Run-D.M.C. biopic is in production. The film is rumored to depict the life and story of the group beginning from their inception in Hollis, Queens, and leading up to the 2002 murder of Jam Master Jay.


In 2004, Run-DMC were one of the first acts honored on the first annual VH1 Hip Hop Honors, alongside legends like 2Pac and the Sugarhill Gang. The Beastie Boys paid tribute. Simmons did not attend the show; he was recording his first solo album, Distortion. It was released in 2005 to strong reviews and moderate sales.[citation needed]

McDaniels also released a solo album, 'Checks Thugs and Rock N Roll', which was slightly less successful.[citation needed] He had recently discovered that he was adopted, which lead him to be the center of the VH1 program My Adoption Journey, a documentary chronicling his re-connection with his biological family. McDaniels was also featured in the 2008 video game, Guitar Hero: Aerosmith, making appearances in the songs "Walk this Way" and "King of Rock". He frequently contributed to VH1 programs such as the I Love The... series, and he released the song "Rock Show" featuring singer Stephan Jenkins.

Simmons also turned to television, starring in Run's House, a reality show that followed his life as a father and husband. The show has become one of the most popular on MTV[citation needed], and it made reality TV stars out of his daughters Vanessa and Angela.

In June 2007, McDaniels appeared with Aerosmith performing "Walk This Way" for their encore at the Hard Rock Calling festival in London, England. Simmons joined Kid Rock's 2008 Rock N Roll Revival Tour, performing "It's Like That", "It's Tricky", "You Be Illin'", "Run's House", "Here We Go", "King of Rock" and "Walk This Way" with Kid Rock. They also covered "For What It's Worth" at the end of the show.

In 2007, Mizell's wife, Terry, Simmons, and McDaniels also launched the J.A.M. Awards in Jay's memory. Jay's vision for social Justice, Arts and Music was promoted by many recording artists, including Snoop Dogg, LL Cool J, Raekwon, Jim Jones, M.O.P., Papoose, Everlast, DJ Muggs, Kid Capri, De La Soul, Mobb Deep, EPMD, Dead Prez, Biz Markie and Marley Marl. In October 2008, Mizell's one-time protege 50 Cent announced plans to produce a documentary about his fallen mentor.[22]

In 2008 Run-D.M.C. was nominated for 2009 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. On January 14, 2009, it was confirmed that Run-D.M.C. would be one of the five inductees to the Rock Hall.[23] On April 3, 2009, Run-D.M.C. became the second rap act to be awarded the honor (after Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five, who were inducted in 2007).[24] It was also announced that Simmons and McDaniels will perform with The Roots at their annual "picnic" show on June 5, 2010.


Allmusic.com's Stephen Thomas Erlewine states that "...More than any other hip-hop group, Run-D.M.C. are responsible for the sound and style of the [hip-hop] music."[25] Musically, they moved hip hop and rap music away from the funk and disco-oriented sound of its beginnings, into an altogether new and unique sonic imprint. Their sound is directly responsible for intentionally transforming rap music from dance-and club-oriented funk grooves like "Rapper's Delight" and "The Breaks" to an aggressive, less-danceable approach. Characterized by sparse, hard-hitting beats…quot;as typified on hits like "It's Like That", and "Peter Piper"…quot;this would form the foundation of hardcore hip hop (particularly hardcore East Coast hip hop).

As such, Run-D.M.C. is considered the originators of the style, and hardcore hip hop would dominate the next two decades of rap music, from the bombastic, noisy sound of Public Enemy and stripped minimalism of Boogie Down Productions to the thump of early Wu-Tang Clan and Nas. Their influence was not limited to the East Coast, however. L.A.'s N.W.A.., on their landmark 1988 album Straight Outta Compton, showed heavy influences from Tougher Than Leather-era Run-D.M.C., and Chicano rap act Cypress Hill were definitely influenced by Run-D.M.C.'s fusion of rap and rock.

Early on, the group rarely sampled and rarely looped anything over their skeletal beats, and the funky minimalism of major producers, such as Timbaland and The Neptunes, is drawn from Run-D.M.C.'s fundamental sound. Rap rock fusion proved to be influential among rock artists, with '80s bands like Faith No More, Anthrax (whose collaboration with Public Enemy on "Bring the Noise" was directly influenced by "Walk This Way"[citation needed]) and the Red Hot Chili Peppers adding elements of rap to alternative rock and heavy metal. Most notably, the rap rock genre became popular in the late 1990s, with bands like Rage Against the Machine, KoRn, Sublime, and Limp Bizkit gaining worldwide popularity by furthering Run-D.M.C.'s template of aggressive rhymes over hard rock riffs.

Aesthetically, they changed the way rappers presented themselves. Onstage, Old school rappers had previously performed in flashy attire and colorful costumes, typically had a live band and, in the case of acts like Whodini, had background dancers. Run-D.M.C. performed with only Run and DMC out front, and Jam-Master Jay on the turntables behind them, in what is now considered the 'classic' hip hop stage setup: two turntables and microphones. They embraced the look and style of the street by wearing jeans, lace-less Adidas sneakers, and their trademark black fedoras. The group shunned both the over-the-top wardrobe of previous rap stars like the Furious Five and Afrika Bambaataa, and the silk-shirted, jheri curled, ladies' man look of rappers like Kurtis Blow and Spoonie Gee. Followers of their style included LL Cool J and the Beastie Boys; seemingly overnight, rappers were wearing jeans and sneakers instead of rhinestones and leather outfits. From Adidas track suits and rope chains to baggy jeans and Timberland footwear, hip hop's look remained married to the styles of the street.

According to the Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll:

“Run-D.M.C. took hardcore hip-hop from an underground street sensation to a pop-culture phenomenon. Although earlier artists, such as Grandmaster Flash and the Sugar Hill Gang, made rap's initial strides on the airwaves, it was Run-D.M.C. that introduced hats, gold chains, and untied sneakers to youth culture's most stubborn demographic group: young white male suburban rock fans. In the process, the trio helped change the course of popular music, paving the way for rap's second generation.[7]

Historically, the group achieved a number of notable firsts in hip hop music and are credited with being the act most responsible for pushing hip hop into mainstream popular music, initiating its musical and artistic evolution and enabling its growth as a global phenomenon. Run-D.M.C. is the first rap act to have reached a number of major accomplishments:[26]

220px-Adidas_Run_DMC_shoe.jpg Adidas sneakers with Run DMC logo on.

  • A #1 R&B charting rap album
  • The second rap act to appear on American Bandstand (the Sugar Hill Gang appeared first on the program in 1981)
  • The first rap act to chart in the Top 40 of the Billboard Hot 100 more than once
  • The first rap artist with a Top 10 pop charting rap album
  • The first rap artist with gold, platinum, and multi-platinum albums
  • The first rap act to appear on the cover of Rolling Stone magazine
  • (one of) The first rap act(s) to receive a Grammy Award nomination
  • The first rap act to make a video appearance on MTV
  • The first rap act to perform at a major arena
  • Signed to an major product endorsement deal (Adidas)

In 2009, it was revealed that Run-D.M.C featured in a Michael Jackson song called "Crack Kills". The song was supposed to be on Jackson's 1987 album, Bad, but it was shelved due to the groups' negative attitude towards the singer and also because Bubbles bit Jam Master Jay. However, only Run DMC's verse was heard in a similar titled song called "Crack" on the reissue of Tougher Than Leather.


Main article: Run…quot;D.M.C. discography

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