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Ministry was an American industrial metal band founded by frontman Al Jourgensen in 1981. Originally a synthpop outfit, Ministry changed its style to industrial metal in the late 1980s. Ministry found mainstream success in the early 1990s with its most successful album Psalm 69: The Way to Succeed and the Way to Suck Eggs (1992) and touring as part of the Lollapalooza festival. After 27 years of performing, Al Jourgensen decided to retire the band as of 2008.

Band history

Early years and With Sympathy (1981–1984)

Al Jourgensen began Ministry in Chicago, Illinois in 1981. His first band prior to Ministry was Special Affect with Groovie Mann (of My Life With the Thrill Kill Kult), drummer Harry Rushakoff (Concrete Blonde) and bassist Marty Sorenson. After that was the short-lived Silly Charmichaels, with Ben Krug, Tom Krug and Tom Wall (all of The Imports). The original line-up of Ministry consisted mainly of Jourgensen (vocals and guitar), Stephen George (drums), Robert Roberts (keyboards), and John Davis (keyboards), although with a few personnel changes, the band's image would begin to focus more on Jourgensen and Stephen George. Ministry's original sound was essentially New Wave synthpop that was more melodic and stylized than the aggressive music for which they would become known. Ministry released four 12" singles on Wax Trax! Records from 1981 to 1984 (anthologized on Twelve Inch Singles that featured the club favorite "Everyday is Halloween"). Their first LP, With Sympathy, was issued on Arista Records in 1983, and sold slowly but hit the upper 90s in the Billboard 200. The music in With Sympathy, and the various singles that Arista issued in association with it, was melodic pop. Jourgensen has always expressed disappointment with Ministry's music during those early years, reportedly referring to With Sympathy as an "abortion of an album." According to him, after signing the record contract, all artistic control of Ministry was "handed" over to other writers and producers. Some of his preferred recordings from that era were collected into the CD Early Trax (Rykodisc Records, 2004).

Twitch (1985–1986)

By the mid-1980s, Jourgensen parted ways with George and signed to Sire Records. Jourgensen performed mostly solo for Ministry's next LP, Twitch (1986), which sold well, but was still considered to be "underground". The music was danceable electronic music, but wasn't pop music, and the sound was harsher and more aggressive than what Ministry had recorded before. According to Jourgensen, "Twitch was stuff that I was doing before With Sympathy came out. Some of that stuff was already four or five years old, but the record company didn't want to use it, so...". Much of the new sound was created with the use of digital sampling and the input of producer Adrian Sherwood.

The Land of Rape and Honey (1987–1988)

After Twitch, Jourgensen made the most significant change in Ministry's history when he became re-enchanted with the electric guitar. Jourgensen also brought bass guitarist Paul Barker of the Seattle band The Blackouts into the Ministry camp; Barker would remain Jourgensen's bandmate for many years when he was the only person credited as a member of the band other than Jourgensen. With the addition of The Blackouts drummer William Rieflin, Ministry recorded The Land of Rape and Honey (1988). The LP continued their success in the underground music scene. The Land of Rape and Honey made use of synthesizers, keyboards, tape loops, jackhammering drum machines, dialogue excerpted from movies, unconventional electronic processing, and, in parts, heavy distorted electric guitar and bass. The album was supported by a tour in 1988 and the singles and music videos for "Stigmata" and "Flashback". Stigmata was also used in a key scene in Richard Stanley's 1990 film Hardware, although the band shown performing the song was Gwar.

The Mind is a Terrible Thing to Taste (1989–1990)

The follow-up, The Mind Is a Terrible Thing to Taste was supported by the "RollerBall" tour from 1989 to 1990. Due to the complex nature of the album's drumming, a second drummer, Martin Atkins, was used. In addition to Atkins, a ten piece touring line-up was formed, consisting of Chris Connelly (keyboards and vocals), Nivek Ogre (vocals and keyboards), Joe Kelly (vocals and backing vocals) and guitarists Mike Scaccia, Terry Roberts, and William Tucker, with Jourgensen, Barker and Rieflin serving as the groups core members. This tour was documented on In Case You Didn't Feel Like Showing Up. One single, "Burning Inside" (for which a video was made), was released from the album.

Throughout the late 1980s Jourgensen and Barker expanded their ideas beyond Ministry into a seemingly endless parade of side projects and collaborations. Many of these bore Ministry's signature sound and the duo's "Hypo Luxa/Hermes Pan" production imprint. (These side-projects were also responsible for the delayed release of Ministry's next album.) Foremost of these was Ministry's alter ego, the Revolting Cocks. "RevCo", as it is often referred to, essentially became the same band as it had originally featured Belgian musicians Richard 23 (of Front 242) and Luc Van Acker. Jourgensen and Barker also formed Lard with Dead Kennedys frontman Jello Biafra, Acid Horse with Cabaret Voltaire, 1000 Homo DJs (which featured Nine Inch Nails' Trent Reznor doing vocals on a cover of Black Sabbath's Supernaut), PTP with Chris Connelly and Pailhead with Ian MacKaye of Minor Threat and Fugazi. Barker released his own material as Lead Into Gold and Jourgensen produced and played electric guitar on Skinny Puppy's Rabies LP. Atkins and Rieflin also formed the band Pigface, which featured Barker on several tracks, as well. The smaller of these projects were later collected on the CD Side Trax (Rykodisc Records, 2004), and the RevCo discography was remastered and reissued.

Psalm 69 (1991–1993)

Ministry broke into the mainstream in 1991 with "Jesus Built My Hotrod" (co-authored by Gibby Haynes of the Butthole Surfers and Michael Balch of Frontline Assembly affiliation). The music video was a hit on MTV, and the band scored second billing on the Lollapalooza tour and managed, by some accounts, to steal the show. As the single would have indicated, the sound of the following LP, Psalm 69: The Way to Succeed and the Way to Suck Eggs (1992), was the most metal-oriented Ministry had put to record at that point, the focal point of the sound shifting almost entirely from synths to Jourgensen's and new members Mike Scaccia's and Louis Svitek's electric guitars.

ΚΕΦΑΛΗΞΘ, which is printed on the record, is a concatenation of "κεφαλή" (Greek for "head" or "leader") and "ΞΘ" (the number 69 in Greek numerals). The title was borrowed from Aleister Crowley's work: The Book of Lies (Chapter 69, "The Way to Succeed—and the Way to Suck Eggs!"). Psalm 69 became Ministry's biggest hit, including in addition to "Jesus Built My Hotrod" the singles "N.W.O." (a protest of the Persian Gulf War and attack directed at then-President George H.W. Bush) and "Just One Fix" (a collaboration with poet/novelist William S. Burroughs). The single "N.W.O." was used in the 1992 live-action/animated movie Cool World.

Filth Pig (1994–1996)

In 1994, Ministry performed at the Bridge School Benefit charity concert, covering songs by Bob Dylan, Ten Years After, and The Grateful Dead, and playing a new song, " Oh...Presley, Come Hither, Presley...", which was intended to be on their next album. In 1995, Ministry was one of the headlining acts for Australia and New Zealand's Big Day Out touring festival. In spite of their growing success, Ministry was nearly derailed by a series of arrests and drug problems[citation needed]. The band did not issue their next album, Filth Pig, until 1996. For Filth Pig, Ministry stripped all synthesizers and most samples from their style and made the music almost entirely with ultra-noisy guitars, heavy bass, and real drums. The songs were played mostly at slower tempos than the very fast ones that were used for the compositions on their previous three LPs, giving it an almost doom metal feel. Filth Pig was supported with the singles/videos "Reload", "The Fall", "Lay Lady Lay" (an unusual and unexpected cover of Bob Dylan's old country-tinged hit) and "Brick Windows" and with a tour in 1996 (the live performances were later anthologized on the Sphinctour album and DVD in 2002). The album has been considered by Jourgensen to be his response to fan expectations of where Ministry's sound was heading, and it's also been speculated that it was an attempt to move away from the "industrial" label of the band's music.

Dark Side of the Spoon (1998–2000)

The members of Ministry experienced greater devastation when former guitarist William Tucker committed suicide in 1999 by cutting his own throat. Ministry then recorded their final studio album for Warner Bros. Records, Dark Side of the Spoon (1999), which they dedicated to Tucker. For Dark Side of the Spoon, Ministry tried to diversify their sound by adding some melodic and synthetic touches, to their usual electro-metal sound, along with some jazz influences, but the album was not well received. However, the single "Bad Blood" appeared on the soundtrack album of The Matrix and was nominated for a 2000 Grammy award.

In the summer of 2000, Ministry was invited to that year's Ozzfest. They would fill in the co-headliner position left vacant by a failed-reuniting of the original Judas Priest. Ministry was later dropped from the bill after a management changeover, although Al's drug habits may have actually played the culprit in this. They were replaced by Soulfly.

Hiatus and Animositisomina (2001–2003)

Parting with their longtime record imprint, Warner Bros. Records issued the collection Greatest Fits in 2001, which featured a new song, "What About Us?". Ministry would later make a brief cameo appearance in the Steven Spielberg film AI: Artificial Intelligence, performing the song. During 2000-2002, record-company (Warner Bros. Records) disputes resulted in the planned albums Live Psalm 69, Sphinctour and ClittourUS on Ipecac Recordings being canceled (although its contents had been compiled), resulting instead in Sphinctour appearing on Sanctuary Records.

Around 2001, Jourgensen almost lost his arm when he was bitten by a venomous spider. According to Jourgensen, the realization that he could have lost his livelihood caused him to kick his heroin addiction and focus on music once again. Jourgensen and Barker, along with Max Brody who had joined as a saxophone player for the 1999 tour, focused on developing songs for a new record during 2001 and 2002, with the band issuing Animositisomina on Sanctuary Records in 2003. The sound was strongly heavy metal laden with voice effects, and matched the ferocity of Psalm 69 (though it featured an almost-pop cover of Magazine's "The Light Pours Out Of Me"). Animositisomina did poorly in terms of sales and singles for "Animosity" and "Piss" were canceled before they could be released.

Barker left the Ministry camp in 2003 due to dissatisfaction with the direction of his life. He stated that the trigger was his father dying while the band was wrapping up a summer tour in Europe, and also stated in early 2004 that his family life was his main focus at that particular time. Jourgensen continued Ministry with Mike Scaccia and various other musicians.

Houses of the Molé and Rio Grande Blood (2004–2006)

For Ministry's next album, Jourgensen released the song "No 'W'", an attack on then-U.S. President George W. Bush; an alternate version of the track was placed on the multi-performer compilation Rock Against Bush, Vol. 1. The follow-up LP, Houses of the Molé (2004), contained the most explicitly political lyrics Jourgensen had yet written, with songs in Ministry's classic industrial electro-metallic sound played messier, more crudely and more freely than ever before, giving the album the most metal-oriented sound of their career. In 2006 the band released Rio Grande Blood, an LP on Jourgensen's own 13th Planet Records. With Prong's Tommy Victor and Killing Joke's Paul Raven, the album featured an even heavier thrash metal sound drawing comparison to Slayer. The single "Lieslieslies" was nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Metal Performance at the 49th annual Grammy Awards. It, along with another song on the album, "The Great Satan", is also available as a downloadable content song for the 2008 video game Rock Band 2. In July 2007, the band released Rio Grande Dub, an album featuring remixes from the band's 2006 Rio Grande Blood album.

The Last Sucker, Cover Up and Undercover (2007–2010)

Ministry's "final" album, The Last Sucker, was released on September 18, 2007.

On June 4, 2007, Al Jourgensen filed a Tortious Interference lawsuit against ex-bassist Paul Barker and Spurburn Music in Los Angeles Superior Court. (case #SC094122) The case was dismissed on October 24, 2008.

Paul Raven died on October 20, 2007. He suffered an apparent heart attack shortly after arriving in Europe to commence recording for the French industrial band Treponem Pal near the Swiss border.

Al Jourgensen remixed and co-produced Spyder Baby's "Bitter", which was released by Blind Prophecy Records in early 2008.

A song titled "Keys to the City", the theme song for the Chicago Blackhawks was released on March 5, 2008. In addition to this single, two albums of covers/remixes, Cover Up (April 1, 2008) and Undercover (December 7, 2010) were released. All of these releases are credited to Ministry and Co-Conspirators, since they feature collaborations between Al Jourgensen and other musicians.

Ministry's farewell tour, the "C-U-LaTour", started its North American leg on March 26, 2008 with Meshuggah performing as special guests and Hemlock as an opening act. They played their final North American show in Chicago on 12 May 2008. The final date on their farewell tour was at the Tripod in Dublin, Ireland on 18 July 2008. During the performance, Jourgensen repeatedly reaffirmed that it would indeed be the last ever Ministry show. Due to a large demand for tickets, an extra gig was added at the Tripod on 19 July 2008. The band again played to a full house. It was clear that the band were not expecting so much support, as the merchandise stall was sold out before the gig even got under way. Ministry's final song at this show (and ostensibly their last ever live performance) was a rendition of their cover version of "What a Wonderful World" to the music of "Jesus built my Hot-Rod".

Adios... Puta Madres, a live album featuring material culled from Ministry's final tour, was released in 2009 on CD and DVD.

Three of the group's songs were featured in the Academy Award-winning 2009 film The Hurt Locker.

A documentary film, called Fix, was planned for release sometime in 2010. However, the release date was pushed back to early 2011. The documentary premiered at the Chicago International Movies & Music Festival. Jourgensen is suing the maker, Doug Freel, for failing to fulfill his part of the contract (giving Jourgensen approval over the final cut, along with "thousands of dollars").


Main article: Ministry discography

With Sympathy (1983)

Twitch (1986)

The Land of Rape and Honey (1988)

The Mind Is a Terrible Thing to Taste (1989)

Psalm 69: The Way to Succeed and the Way to Suck Eggs (1992)

Filth Pig (1996)

Dark Side of the Spoon (1999)

Animositisomina (2003)

Houses of the Molé (2004)

Rio Grande Blood (2006)

The Last Sucker (2007)

Cover Up (2008)

Undercover (2010)


Al Jourgensen - vocals, guitar, keyboards, various other instruments (1981–2011)

John Davis - keyboards (1981–1982)

Stephen George - drums (1981–1985)

Robert Roberts - keyboards (1981–1984)

Marty Sorenson - bass (1981–1982)

Shay Jones - vocals (1982–1983)

Brad Hallen - bass (1983–1985)

Paul Barker - bass, keyboards, programming, vocals (1986-August 2003)

Waylon Ford - bass (1996–1997)

Bill Rieflin - drums, keyboards, programming, guitar (1986-February 1995)

Chris Connelly - vocals, keyboards & various songwriting credits (1987–1993)

Nivek Ogre - vocals, guitar, keyboards (1988–1990)

Mike Scaccia - guitars, bass (1989–1995, 2003–2006)

Michael Balch - keyboards, programming (1991–1992)

Howie Beno - programming, editing (1990–1993)

Louis Svitek - guitar (1992–1999, 2003)

Duane Buford - keyboards (1995–1999)

Zlatko Hukic - electronics, guitar (1995–1999)

Rey Washam - drums, percussion, programming (1995–1999, 2003)

Max Brody - drums, percussion, programming, saxophone (1999–2004)

Mark Baker - drums (2004–2005)

John Monte - bass (January 2004-September 2004)

Paul Raven - bass, keyboards, guitar, drums (2005–2007)

Tommy Victor - guitars, bass (2005–2008)

John Bechdel - keyboards (2006–2008)

Sin Quirin - guitars, bass (2007–2008)

Live line-ups


Al Jourgensen - vocals, guitar, keyboards

Stephen George - drums

Robert Roberts - keyboards, backing vocals

John Davis - keyboards, backing vocals


Al Jourgensen - vocals, guitar

Stephen George - drums

Brad Hallen - bass, keyboards

Shay Jones - vocals

Robert Roberts - keyboards, backing vocals (June–September)[13]

Mark Pothier - keyboards, backing vocals (June–September)[13]

Doug Chamberlin - keyboards (October–December)[13]


Al Jourgensen - vocals, guitar

Stephen George - drums

Brad Hallen - bass

Doug Chamberlin - keyboards (May–October)[14]

Patty Jourgensen - keyboards

Yvonne Gage - vocals

John Soroka - keyboards (October–December)[14]


Al Jourgensen - vocals, keyboards

Paul Barker - bass, keyboards

Bill Rieflin - drums

Roland Barker - keyboards, saxophone


Al Jourgensen - vocals, keyboards

Paul Barker - bass, keyboards, vocals

Bill Rieflin - drums

Marston Daley - keyboards

Luc Van Acker - vocals


Al Jourgensen - vocals, guitar

Paul Barker - bass, keyboards

Bill Rieflin - keyboards, guitar

Jeff Ward - drums

Nivek Ogre - vocals, guitar (November 12-December 31)[15]


Al Jourgensen - vocals, guitar, keyboards

Paul Barker - bass, keyboards

Bill Rieflin - drums

Chris Connelly - keyboards, vocals

Nivek Ogre - vocals, keyboards

Mike Scaccia - guitar

Martin Atkins - drums

William Tucker - guitar

Terry Roberts - guitar

Joe Kelly - vocals, backing vocals

Lollapalooza (1992)

Al Jourgensen - vocals, guitar

Paul Barker - bass (July 18-September 5)[16]

Bill Rieflin - drums

Mike Scaccia - guitar

Roland Barker - keyboards

Sam Ladwig - guitar

Michael Bassin - guitar

Casey Orr - bass (September 6-September 13)[16]


Al Jourgensen - vocals, guitar, harmonica

Paul Barker - bass

Bill Rieflin - drums

Mike Scaccia - guitar

Louis Svitek - guitar

Roland Barker - keyboards

Chris Connelly - vocals

Big Day Out festival (1995)

Al Jourgensen - vocals, guitar, harmonica

Paul Barker - bass

Mike Scaccia - guitar

Louis Svitek - guitar

Rey Washam - drums

Duane Buford - keyboards


Al Jourgensen - vocals, guitar, mandolin, harmonica

Paul Barker - bass, keyboards

Louis Svitek - guitar

Rey Washam - drums

Duane Buford - keyboards

Zlatko Hukic - guitar


Al Jourgensen - vocals, guitar, mandolin, harmonica

Paul Barker - keyboards

Waylon Ford - bass

Louis Svitek - guitar

Rey Washam - drums

Duane Buford - keyboards

Zlatko Hukic - guitar


Al Jourgensen - vocals, guitar, banjo, harmonica

Paul Barker - bass

Louis Svitek - guitar

Rey Washam - drums

Duane Buford - keyboards

Zlatko Hukic - guitar

Max Brody - saxophone (U.S. dates only)[17]


Al Jourgensen - vocals, guitar, harmonica

Paul Barker - bass

Max Brody - drums, saxophone

Mike Scaccia - guitar

Louis Svitek - guitar

Darrell James - keyboards

Tia Sprocket - drums (February 16-March 25)[18]

Rey Washam - drums (March 26-July 13)[18]


Al Jourgensen - vocals, guitar

Mike Scaccia - guitar

Mark Baker - drums

Darrell James - keyboards

Rick Valles - guitar

Eddy Garcia - bass


Al Jourgensen - vocals, guitar

Mike Scaccia - guitar

Tommy Victor - guitar

Paul Raven - bass

John Bechdel - keyboards

Joey Jordison - drums


Al Jourgensen - vocals, guitar

Tommy Victor - guitar

Sin Quirin - guitar :wub: :wub: :wub:

John Bechdel - keyboards

Tony Campos - bass

Aaron Rossi - drums

Burton C. Bell - vocals (North America dates only)

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